In pursuit of environmental sustainability, polymers filled with bio-particulates are replacing
traditional plastic components. Epoxy Polymer composites of eggshell powder were prepared
at filler contents of 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%. the particle size of the eggshell powder was 75
μm, 180 μm, and 250 μm. The composite samples were prepared using the Carver Inc.
Hydraulic Press (3851-0) by compression molding and the resulting composites were produced in sheets. Some mechanical properties of the composite were determined. the result showed that the eggshell powder improved the tensile modulus, flexural strength and impact strength of the polymer these properties increased with increase in the filler content and decrease in the
filler size. But at 30 wt% a decrease in these properties were observed which can be attributed
to agglomeration and stress concentration effects. Highlighting the fact that the dispersion and distribution of filler particles within the matrix play a crucial role in determining the mechanical properties. Inhomogeneities in mixing or particle clustering could lead to variations in the measured properties.
In this paper, the Born-Mayer potential is used to describe the core-shell polystyrene nanoparticle and the Schrodinger equation for this nanoparticle is solved rigorously using the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method to obtain the exact bound state solutions and energy spectrum. This is achieved by inserting the Born-Mayer potential into the Time Independent Schrödinger Equation (TISE), obtaining the radial part and solving, exactly, for the expectation values of the energy spectrum and the corresponding eigenfunctions applying the Nikiforov Uvarov (NU) method. The eigenvalue expression obtained is similar to earlier work on Soliton solution in nonlinear lattice with the nearest neighbor Born-Mayer interaction.
The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in soil samples from Kudan Local Government Area irrigation farming areas have been evaluated using gamma-ray
spectrometry. The results of the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K range between
18.15 to 34.66 Bq/kg, 16.01 to 18.83 Bq/kg and 205.51 to 461.25 Bq/kg respectively. The
activity concentration of 40K was seen to be higher than the world average value of 370 Bq/kg
at Kauran Wali South (GO3K) 375.25 Bq/kg, Doka (GB1K) 389.60 Bq/kg, Kauran Wali North
(GB2K) 420.15 Bq/kg, Likoro (GB4K) 383.65 Bq/kg, Garu (GB5K) 461.25 Bq/kg, Zabi
(GB6K) 372.76 Bq/kg and Kudan (GB7K) 382.50 Bq/kg. The activity concentrations of 238U
and 232Th were observed to be high at Garu (GB5K), with values of 34.66 and 18.83 Bq/kg
respectively, however, these values were still below the world average value of 40 Bq/kg as
reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation
(UNSEAR) in 2000. The average values for the indoor absorbed dose rate (Din), Internal
Hazard Index (Hin), External Hazard Index (Hex) and Indoor Annual Effective Dose (ADE)
were evaluated to be 83.07 nGy/hr, 0.35, 0.28 and 0.41 mSv respectively. The estimated
radiological indices were seen to fall within the internationally acceptable limits except for the
indoor absorbed dose rate (Din) whose values were all higher than the acceptable limit of 60
nGy/hr as recommended by UNSCEAR in 2000. The high values obtained from this study
could be attributed to the excessive use of fertilizers by the farmers within the study area.
Electrical resistivity techniques of geophysical prospecting have been used to evaluate the
groundwater potential of the University of Abuja Health Services Centre at the main campus.
This research aims to identify suitable locations for productive wells and boreholes, determine
the depth of the bedrock, as well as measure resistivity and overburden thickness. The survey
employed Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) along five profiles, comprising fifty (50) VES
stations covering the survey area. The resistivity data obtained are analysed using IPI2win
software. The analysis of the resistivity data revealed that the survey area can be divided into
four geoelectric layers: topsoil, clayey sand, weathered layer, and fresh basement. The
resistivity values of these layers range from 38.7-1427 Ωm, 16.2-310 Ωm, 32.1-1714 Ωm and
1007-9528 Ωm respectively. The fresh basement layer was found to have an infinite thickness.
Significantly, potential regions with low resistivity values indicating the presence of
groundwater were identified at a depth of 18.3 m. Furthermore, the average overburden
thickness in the study area was 35 m while the longitudinal conductance of the overburden
ranges from 0.04 – 1.87 mho. Results obtained indicate the main aquifer in the area consists of
a thick weathered layer of overburden and a weathered basement with relatively low resistivity,
suggesting a potentially productive groundwater yield. This information is crucial for future
planning and decision-making regarding the siting of wells and boreholes and the sustainable
utilisation of groundwater resources in the University of Abuja main campus.
A study of the occurrence of the first intense Geomagnetic storm (G4) to hit the Earth since the start of the Solar Cycle 25 is carried out. This study analyzed the Geomagnetic Storm that occurred between the 28th of October and the 7th of November 2021. The values of the Disturbance storm time (Dst) index of the storm reach -115 nT (G4) which occurred on the 4th of November at 1300UT. The storm is the first intense magnetic storm that occurred in the solar cycle 25. It is also a multiple-step storm with moderate two-step storm occurrence which occurred on the 5th and 6th of November at 1500UT and 0600UT respectively towards the recovery phase after the intense storm. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)Bz (nT) during these storm events decreases. Our analysis shows that the rise in solar wind speed, temperature and the enhancement of pressure plays a significant role in the occurrence of the first intense Geomagnetic storm of Solar Cycle 25.
An electrical resistivity investigation was carried out in parts of the College of Education
(Technical) Asaba to delineate the subsurface lithologic units with special emphasis on the competence and suitability for engineering foundations. A total of ten (10) vertical electrical
sounding and two (2) horizontal profiling stations were covered within the study area using the
Schlumberger and dipole-dipole configurations. The acquired data was analyzed using WinResist and RES2DINV Software; the subsurface within the study area is composed of mostly 3 geoelectric layers: topsoil, clay/sandy clay/clayey sand and sand. The second and third
layers have relatively low resistivity ranging between 29 – 94 Ωm and consist of incompetent clayey material underlying about 60 % of the investigated study area. The interpreted field results showed a significant clay overburden that is over 5 m thick. A fourth layer of sand with resistivity values ranging between 451 – 1258 Ωm was encountered at depths between 4.9 – 11.5 m; the thickness of this layer with reference from the borehole log is greater than 20 m. It is therefore recommended that the incompetent clayey material be avoided or excavated before
constructing any structure.
This study examined the levels of metals (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ta, Pt, Au, Pb, and Bi) in onion bulbs and leaves in light of the latent toxicity, unsolvable character, and snowballing behaviour of heavy metals. The onion bulbs and leaves were randomly selected from the Samaru market chopped, dried, and ground
into a powder for X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) measurement. Except for
concentrations of Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag, with the value of 9.996, 4.051, 2.047 and 2.082 mg/kg in
the onion bulbs and 20.23, 5.861, 1.175 and 1.538 mg/kg in the onion leaves respectively,
which were higher than the permissible level of 0.800, 0.530, 0.000005 and 0.014 respectively,
all the metals analysed were at or below the World Health Organization's (WHO) permissible
limit. The findings generally indicated that Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag poisoning could result from eating onion bulbs and leaves from the Samaru market due to the Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag health risks. To avoid metal poisoning and subsequent bioaccumulation of the metal in the systems of
consumers and the ecosystem at large, there is a need for a quarterly examination of the metal content in the onion bulb and onion leaf in the Samaru market.
The physical properties of crystalline compounds are highly essential for predicting their
applications in various nanodevices. Density functional theory is very useful in that regard.
Herein, some physical properties such as structural stability, and electronic, optical and
mechanical properties of two-phase bulk WSe2 have been comparatively investigated by first
principle calculations. Band structure calculations elucidate that the materials are indirect band
gap semiconductors having band gap energy in the range 1-1.5 eV. It was observed that the
hexagonal crystal has higher absorption coefficients compared to the trigonal phase. Analysis
of elastic constants of the materials carried out using the Born criteria method indicates that all
systems are mechanically stable at room temperature. Our findings are in close agreement with
the previous experimental and theoretical results, this further suggests that the materials are
promising in optoelectronics applications.
A geophysical study has been carried out using the electrical resistivity method, Very LowFrequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and physiochemical analysis to investigate the effects
of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of an open dumpsite at Idugosa. A Vertical
Electrical sounding was carried out at 100 m away from the dumpsite and the results revealed
an H-type curve with 3- layers, with a low resistivity value of 90.0 Ωm, thickness of 9.8 m and
depth of 11.3 m at the weathered basement. The control VES revealed 5 –layers of HK-type
curve. The resistivity of the weathered and fractured basement ranged from 241.8 Ωm to 2908.4
Ωm with a thickness range of 3.5 m to 13.6 m and a depth range of 5.6 m to 19.1 m. Results
of the horizontal profiling using Wenner profiling revealed a low resistivity value of 1.6 Ωm to
3.8 Ωm at a depth of 15 m to 30 m, concentrated at stations 20 to 100. The bottom of the western
part showed that the leachate plume had infiltrated and contaminated the groundwater in the
zone. The VLF-EM with the three profiles revealed high current density values on the KarousHjelt filter plot at distances of 20 m to 38 m for profile 1, 25 m to 50 m and 75 m to 95 m for
profile 2, revealing the presence of contaminants which is mainly from decayed organic matter
from waste bodies and heavy metals from the dumpsite. Profile 3 which is further away from
profile 1 revealed that the contamination is reduced as we move further away from the dumpsite
at about 10 m to 20 m, 50 m to 60 m and 90 m respectively. The physio-chemical analysis
results showed a pH range of 6.73 – 7.17 which is within the World Health Organization
(WHO) standard (6.5 - 8.5). The Electrical Conductivity (EC) value of the Idugosa dumpsite
was found to be 804.9 μS/cm, which is above the WHO standard for EC values, which should
not exceed 400 μS/cm. This high value can be attributed to the infiltration of the leachate plume
from the dumpsite. The EC for Idugosa control which is 188.0 μS/cm is within the WHO limit
for groundwater, thus its safe for consumption.
Kidney failure has become a growing problem at Hadejia Emirates over the last decade. This can be attributed to water pollution, possibly due to heavy metal contamination of River Hadejia that affects organisms living in it, such as fish. This study is aimed to determine the
concentration of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb) in two fish muscles. The research was conducted on tilapia and catfish where two samples of both fishes were used. The fish tissues were cut and oven-dried at 110 °C, and then a motor and pestle were used to powder the dried fish
sample. A wet digestion method was used based on the analytical methods for Atomic
Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The result obtained shows that the concentrations of heavy
metals (Cr, Cd, As and Pb) in both fishes were found to be 0.3220 ± 0.0028; 0.1656 ± 0.002
(𝑚𝑔/𝑘𝑔), 0.0319 ± 0.0018; 0.0333 ± 0.0018 (𝑀𝑔/𝑘𝑔), 0.0697 ± 0.0011; 0.1035 ± 0.0015
(𝑚𝑔/𝑘𝑔) and 1.008 ± 0.0035; 0.600 ± 0.002 (𝑚𝑔/𝑘𝑔) respectively. The mean concentration value of the two samples of both tilapia and catfish were found to be above WHO standard limit except for cadmium in tilapia which is below WHO standard limit.
Borate glass systems have been extensively studied for practical applications in optical display
devices by virtue of their peculiar luminescence efficiency. However, the attainment of high
emission from borate glass materials via apposite control of rare earth ions (REIs) contents
remains a topical issue in Material Physics. In this paper, we report the influence
of REIs (Dy3+, Eu3+, and Sm3+) on multiple-colour emission of magnesium sodium borate
(MSB) glasses fabricated by using the conventional melt-quenching method. These glasses were optically characterized via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR and
Photoluminescence techniques. The XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the as-prepared glasses. The absorption spectra disclosed several absorption bands at 347 nm (6H15/2 → 6P7/2) for Dy3+, 393 nm (7F0 → 5L6) for Eu3+ and 403 nm (6H5/2 →6P5/2) assigned for Sm3+ respectively. Also, the emission spectra radiate at 463 nm (4F9/2 → 6F11/2 + 6H9/2), 612 nm (5D0 → 7FJ) and 599 nm (4G5/2 → 6H7/2) for Dy3+, Eu3+, and Sm3+ correspondingly, wherein Dy3+ emits blue, yellow, and red light, Eu3+ emits red light and Sm3+ emits reddish-orange light. Finally, 1.0 mol% content of Dy3+, Eu3+, and Sm3+ in MSB glasses was found to be optimal and hence considered the best optical host for colour display devices.
Rain attenuation is a major source of impairment to signal degradation at millimetre wave bands above 10 GHz. This research work determines the extent of signal degradation due to rainfall on terrestrial radio links within Minna and Lapai. The meteorological rainfall data collected from the Automatic Weather Stations installed at the Federal University of Technology, Minna, and at Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, for a period of 3 years (2011-2013) were used to computate the rainfall attenuation on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets. The Lavergnat-Gole (LG) model was used for the conversion of cumulative distributions of rainfall of 5-min to 1-min integration time in Minna and Lapai respectively. The LG model was used to estimate the rain attenuation in the two stations at a frequency range of 10-18 GHz. The relationship between rain rate and specific attenuation was studied using three years rainfall data. It was observed that a power-law relationship exists between rainfall rates of different integration times. The results for the rain rate exceeded for 0.01% of time, show that the horizontal polarisation experiences more degradation than the vertical polarisation. The results also show that specific and total attenuations increase with increasing operational frequency, and are polarisation-dependent. These results would be useful for planning terrestrial radio networks within the study area.
In this research the effect of imbalance and nonlinear load on power quality was investigated via the electronic method with the aid of a Fluke 435 power quality analyser and the results obtained compared with IEEE standards. The study was carried out on 11 kV Pama feeder Kaduna state, Nigeria, which is comprised of Nassarawa, Boro1, Pama 1, Pama 2, and Pama 4 substation. The analyzed result shows an average value of 230 and 1327 times voltage dips and swells, 11.74 % harmonics current, 2.33 % harmonic voltage, 5.96% imbalance voltage and 25% imbalance current respectively. When compared with the IEEE standard limits of 5 % and 2 % harmonic current and voltage, 10 % and 5 % imbalance current and voltage, it could be seen that these results imply the presence of harmonics within the system which are fundamentally due to imbalance and non-linear load, triggering operating complications on the distribution system. These complications include load disruptions, over current, over voltage, heating, leading to forceful outage, increased power losses, faster ageing of insulations, unstable power supply, burnt cables, sockets and connectors, thus reducing capacity and ultimately resulting in premature failure of transformer.
his research presents an investigation on the shale volume effect on hydrocarbon prospectivity of Green Field within Niger Delta, Nigeria. Delineation of potential reservoirs was done with Petrel Version 2010® and OpendTect 4. 6.0® exploration and production softwares, and data obtained were quality checked to eliminate null values. Three different empirical models were used to estimate the shale volume for fifteen delineated reservoirs from the three identified “Green” wells. The shale volume ranges from 0.111 to 0.162 for Green 1, 0.056 to 0.092 for Green 2 and 0.007 to 0.140 for Green 3 reservoirs. An average shale volume obtained from a merger of the three models was compared to the permeability in each of the fifteen reservoirs to determine the hydrocarbon prospectivity of the wells. It was noticed that shale volume increases with a decrease in the permeability. The ratio of shale to sand ranges from 0.125 to 0.192 for Green 1, 0.059 to 0.101 for Green 2 and 0.007 to 0.111 for Green 3 reservoirs. The presence of sand in higher volume which ranges from 0.838 to 0.889 for Green 1, 0.908 to 0.944 for Green 2 and 0.900 to 0.993 for Green 3 reservoirs than shale which ranges from 0.111 to 0.162 for Green 1, 0.056 to 0.092 for Green 2 and 0.007 to 0.140 for Green 3 reservoirs and higher resistivity which ranges from 5.61 to 96.93 for Green 1, 16.01 to 103.42 for Green 2 and 14.75 to 22.17 for Green 3 reservoirs than the conductivity which ranges from 0.0100 to 0.1800 for Green 1, 0.0096 to 0.0625 for Green 2 and 0.0450 to 0.0680 for Green 3 reservoirs are some major signals confirming a substantial hydrocarbon in the reservoirs. Results from this study indicates prospective presence of fractured shale deposits in the study area. Petrophysically, subsurface reservoirs in the “Green” field have reasonable hydrocarbons in their pore-spaces and estimated producibility indicators are good enough to support secondary migration of the oil into the borehole, if developed.
Seismic activities leading to tremors have been a subject of interest in geophysical survey. Here in, we reported the (seismic) tectonic activities of Langbodo field, an area where tremors have occurred in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. The seismic data used in this research work were analyzed using the CPillar® and the Plaxis 2D® seismic softwares. These softwares are based on sensitivity, probabilistic and finite element analyses. The variation in the depth of the exploration boreholes for the five identified locations, LCT A, LCT B, LCT C, LCT D and LCT E with respective values 7525 km, 7000 km, 8000 km, 7600 km and 9000 km showed the extent to which the underlying crust can be pressurized. The seismic information from the drilled wells revealed that the tensional force created through stress ranges from 5.517 × 10^13 N to 6.130 × 10^14 N and that of compression ranges from 3.065 × 10^14 N to 5 517 × 10^14 N. The tectonic activities of each of the locations were recorded using the seismic reflection method. This study revealed that more than 50 % of the earth tremors experienced in the area were humanly triggered. Seismic records of the areas showed that human activities that result to rapid injection of fluid into the plates, if not controlled, can trigger tremors. The magnitudes of tremors that have occurred in the five identified locations LCT A, LCT B, LCT C, LCT D and LCT E are respectively 3.50 ML, 3.20 ML, 4.20 ML, 4.00 ML and 4.32 ML. This research work however concluded that the study area is likely to witness earthquakes of about 7.0 ML magnitude should explorations continue indiscriminately. Probable occurrence of earthquakes in this location can be nipped in the bud by setting up agencies that monitor and assess subsurface pressures, quantities of injected fluid, volume of extracted fluid, and the seismicity of vulnerable regions with time.
This study identified the fluid types and boundaries present within selected reservoirs in Langbodo field, using petrophysical parameters based on estimated rock properties such as porosity, permeability, irreducible water saturation, hydrocarbon saturation and bulk water volume. This was with a view to correcting the salient reservoirs heterogeneities anomalies error inherent in building of an ideal realistic reservoir models. The quality of the data obtained were checked and despiked to eliminate null values. Petrel version 2009 and OpendTect 4.6.0. Exploration and production softwares were used for the quality interpretations of data, such as lithology identification, delineation of potential reservoirs and determination of fluids and fluids contacts. Estimation of quantitative petrophysical parameters were done by inputting the data into Microsoft excel 2015 version softwares and adopting appropriate mathematical relations, such as the Tixier, Timur and the Coates and Dumanoir models for the permeability (K). Realistic estimation of the permeability was done by comparing the average of the Tixier, Timur and the Coates and Dumanoir models with each of the models. The composite model obtained, mirrors the behavior of the Timur’s permeability which is higher than that of the Tixier and the Coates and Dumanoir. Integration of the Achie’s equation and neutron – density crossplot confirmed the presence of substantial hydrocarbon in the reservoirs, although producibility indicators revealed that the reservoirs may not be producible without enhanced oil recovery method(s). This study established that the composite model is a better representation of K in the study area because it agrees with the Timur’s estimation model.
The methyl ammonium tin iodide (Ch3Nh3SnI3) perovskite nanocrystals have attracted research interest and have become a rising star in the horizon of photovoltaics due to its narrow band gap, wide visible absorption coefficient and environmental friendliness than its lead-based counterpart (Ch3Nh3PbI3) . In this article, a tin based perovskite solar cell with Zinc oxide (ZnO) and Copper Oxide (CuO) as electron transport medium (ETM) and hole transport medium (HTM) was proposed and investigated numerically using a Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS) tool. With appropriate parameters, a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 27.56 mA/cm2, open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.82 V, fill factor (FF) of 59.32 %, and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.41 % are obtained for the initial simulation. By varying the thicknesses of the absorber and electron transport layer, the optimum thicknesses were observed at 0.6 um and 0.3 um for Ch3Nh3SnI3 and ZnO with corresponding PCEs of 14.36 % and 13.42 %. Upon simulation with optimized parameters, a Jsc of 29. 71 mA/cm2, Voc of 0.83 V, FF of 61.23 % and PCE of 15. 10 % were recorded. These values are superior to those obtained without optimization which means that solar cell performance can be improved to some extent by adjusting the perovskite and electron transport layer and also, Ch3Nh3SnI3 Perovskite solar cell (PSC) is a potential environmentally friendly solar cell with considerable efficiency.
This study aimed to estimate the depth of Nickel deposit in Bakin Kogi – Dangoma region, which lies between latitude 901''and 9027'N and longitude 8000' and 8017' E. The study area is located in Jema’a local government area of Kaduna state. The data was gridded using Oasis Montaj® to produce Total magnetic Intensity Map (TMI) of the area, and further subjected to some filtration processes in order to obtain regional and residual map of the study area. Enhancement methods such as first vertical derivative and analytic signal methods were applied to the residual map to delineate the area with potential Nickel deposit. The quantitativemethod applied were source Parameter Imaging and Euler Deconvolution to determine the various depths of Nickel deposit. From the results of the TMI map and the residual map, the magnetic intensity of the study area was between 32976.5 to 33093.3 nT and 32963.6 to 33072.9 nT respectively with Bakin kogi-Dangoma region, having the highest magnetic intensity of about 33093.3nT and 33072.9 nT respectively. The study area has a high magnetic intensity due to nickel deposit because Nickel ore environment are notable with recognizable “magnetic stratigraphy”, prospective mafic-ultramafic contact, typified by strong magnetic contrast. Abrupt changes in the magnetic intensity infer position of the outer contact of a Nickel bearing zone. The results on the superimposed analytic map on the lineament map showed regional lineaments in Bakin kogi-Dangoma region trending NE -SW, ENE – WSW and NNE – SSW directions. The fractures and faults seen around the study area were strongly associated with minerals deposit. The results of Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) gave a depth of shallower magnetic sources ranges from 92.7 to 116.0 m with an average depth value of 104.35 m while the depth of deeper magnetic sources ranges from 651.2 to 976.2 m with an average depth of 813.7 m. The results obtained from 3D Euler deconvolution which was associated with dykes (SI = 1) anomaly produced at a shallower depth range of 100 - 700 m. Results obtained, shows a correspondence between the depths results obtained from the SPI and that of the Euler Deconvolution methods, indicating correlation in the magnetic depth estimation.
The study of shear rheology and molecular architecture through molecular dynamics simulation
of starch-based and gelatin-based adhesives formulated from Eleusine coracana, and cow hide
has been successfully achieved. This research has revealed that esterification of natural dextrins
with 20 % polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) will yield adhesives product with improved gel properties suitable for applications. Method of extraction, production of the adhesives by varying the
quantity of fatty acid ester and quality assessment was performed and 20% PVAc incorporation found to be suitable for application. The physical features of the macromolecular complexes
formed by the synergistic interaction of starch/gelatin and PVAc in the presence of
tetraethylamine (TEA) has been studied from the rheological point of view. On examining the impact of the molecular structure and electronic properties of the adhesive molecules on the
adhesive efficiency, quantum chemical calculations were carried out. Rheological analysis
shows the adhesives are consistent and the computed free energy obtained from molecular dynamics simulation reveals that the adhesive molecules are spontaneous, hence efficient.
An electrical resistivity investigation was carried to investigate the bedrock geometry of the northern part of Kujama Prisons Farm Kaduna using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)
method. The study is aimed at obtaining information on the subsurface layering for future civil engineering works. The area covered was 200,000 sqm having five (5) profiles with six (6)
geophysical investigative points on each profile and separated 100m apart. Ohm-Mega resistivity meter was used for the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Thirty (30) points where established. To interpret the VES data, Res1D iterative software, Surfer 11 and Oasis Montaj software’s were used and it revealed three to five subsurface layers having Topsoil thickness between 0.3 − 2mand resistivity between 104 − 4824 Ωm also, the last layer considered as the weathered/fractured/fresh basement has an infinite thickness with resistivity
ranging from 45 – 10173 Ωm and the average overburden thickness of the area found to be 17.8m. The VES found fresh basement at points A3(6151 Ωm), A6(5089 Ωm), B3(1067Ωm), E5(10173 Ωm) and E6(1100 Ωm). From the study it is suggestive that the bedrock geometry has been irregularly configured over geological times due to effects of intense weathering. Therefore, the investigation revealed the study area may be considered for civil works of low bearing capacity.
Electrical Resistivity Methods involving Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and
Wenner Electrical Profiling (EP) were carried out to map the Geological features of the earth
subsurface in Zainawa Area of Kano State, Nigeria. Five profiles were established; consist of
six (6) VES points at each profile. GEOPULSE resistivity meter (SAS 300) was used for the data acquisition. The field data obtained have been analyzed using computer software (IPI2win) which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. A maximum of three geoelectric subsurface layers were delineated from the VES master curves. The geoelectric section beneath the study area was composed of top soil (clayey-sandy and sandy-lateritic), weathered layer, partly weathered (fractured basement) and fresh basement. The resistivity value for the topsoil layer varies from 20 Ωm to 600 Ωm with thickness ranging from 0.5 to 7.2 m. The weathered basement has resistivity values ranging from 15 Ωm to 593 Ωm and thickness of between 2.75 to 33.04 m. The fractured basement has resistivity values ranging from 201 Ωm to 835 Ωm and thickness of between 11 to 20.4 m. The fresh basement (bedrock) has resistivity values ranging from 1161 Ωm to 3115 Ωm with infinite depth. The depth to basement map was produced to give a good picture of the basement topography within the study area. The depth to basement ranges from 11 m around VES 01 to 85 m around VES 25 m. The map also reveals linear structures (VES 05, 21, 22 and VES 23) which trends in the NE-SW direction. These structures suggest a basement depression at these points. However, the depth from the topsoil to the bedrock surface varies between 2.5 to 37.75 m.