An electrical resistivity investigation was carried out in parts of the College of Education
(Technical) Asaba to delineate the subsurface lithologic units with special emphasis on the competence and suitability for engineering foundations. A total of ten (10) vertical electrical
sounding and two (2) horizontal profiling stations were covered within the study area using the
Schlumberger and dipole-dipole configurations. The acquired data was analyzed using WinResist and RES2DINV Software; the subsurface within the study area is composed of mostly 3 geoelectric layers: topsoil, clay/sandy clay/clayey sand and sand. The second and third
layers have relatively low resistivity ranging between 29 – 94 Ωm and consist of incompetent clayey material underlying about 60 % of the investigated study area. The interpreted field results showed a significant clay overburden that is over 5 m thick. A fourth layer of sand with resistivity values ranging between 451 – 1258 Ωm was encountered at depths between 4.9 – 11.5 m; the thickness of this layer with reference from the borehole log is greater than 20 m. It is therefore recommended that the incompetent clayey material be avoided or excavated before
constructing any structure.
This study examined the levels of metals (Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ta, Pt, Au, Pb, and Bi) in onion bulbs and leaves in light of the latent toxicity, unsolvable character, and snowballing behaviour of heavy metals. The onion bulbs and leaves were randomly selected from the Samaru market chopped, dried, and ground
into a powder for X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) measurement. Except for
concentrations of Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag, with the value of 9.996, 4.051, 2.047 and 2.082 mg/kg in
the onion bulbs and 20.23, 5.861, 1.175 and 1.538 mg/kg in the onion leaves respectively,
which were higher than the permissible level of 0.800, 0.530, 0.000005 and 0.014 respectively,
all the metals analysed were at or below the World Health Organization's (WHO) permissible
limit. The findings generally indicated that Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag poisoning could result from eating onion bulbs and leaves from the Samaru market due to the Si, Ti, Zr, and Ag health risks. To avoid metal poisoning and subsequent bioaccumulation of the metal in the systems of
consumers and the ecosystem at large, there is a need for a quarterly examination of the metal content in the onion bulb and onion leaf in the Samaru market.
The physical properties of crystalline compounds are highly essential for predicting their
applications in various nanodevices. Density functional theory is very useful in that regard.
Herein, some physical properties such as structural stability, and electronic, optical and
mechanical properties of two-phase bulk WSe2 have been comparatively investigated by first
principle calculations. Band structure calculations elucidate that the materials are indirect band
gap semiconductors having band gap energy in the range 1-1.5 eV. It was observed that the
hexagonal crystal has higher absorption coefficients compared to the trigonal phase. Analysis
of elastic constants of the materials carried out using the Born criteria method indicates that all
systems are mechanically stable at room temperature. Our findings are in close agreement with
the previous experimental and theoretical results, this further suggests that the materials are
promising in optoelectronics applications.
A geophysical study has been carried out using the electrical resistivity method, Very LowFrequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and physiochemical analysis to investigate the effects
of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of an open dumpsite at Idugosa. A Vertical
Electrical sounding was carried out at 100 m away from the dumpsite and the results revealed
an H-type curve with 3- layers, with a low resistivity value of 90.0 Ωm, thickness of 9.8 m and
depth of 11.3 m at the weathered basement. The control VES revealed 5 –layers of HK-type
curve. The resistivity of the weathered and fractured basement ranged from 241.8 Ωm to 2908.4
Ωm with a thickness range of 3.5 m to 13.6 m and a depth range of 5.6 m to 19.1 m. Results
of the horizontal profiling using Wenner profiling revealed a low resistivity value of 1.6 Ωm to
3.8 Ωm at a depth of 15 m to 30 m, concentrated at stations 20 to 100. The bottom of the western
part showed that the leachate plume had infiltrated and contaminated the groundwater in the
zone. The VLF-EM with the three profiles revealed high current density values on the KarousHjelt filter plot at distances of 20 m to 38 m for profile 1, 25 m to 50 m and 75 m to 95 m for
profile 2, revealing the presence of contaminants which is mainly from decayed organic matter
from waste bodies and heavy metals from the dumpsite. Profile 3 which is further away from
profile 1 revealed that the contamination is reduced as we move further away from the dumpsite
at about 10 m to 20 m, 50 m to 60 m and 90 m respectively. The physio-chemical analysis
results showed a pH range of 6.73 – 7.17 which is within the World Health Organization
(WHO) standard (6.5 - 8.5). The Electrical Conductivity (EC) value of the Idugosa dumpsite
was found to be 804.9 μS/cm, which is above the WHO standard for EC values, which should
not exceed 400 μS/cm. This high value can be attributed to the infiltration of the leachate plume
from the dumpsite. The EC for Idugosa control which is 188.0 μS/cm is within the WHO limit
for groundwater, thus its safe for consumption.
Kidney failure has become a growing problem at Hadejia Emirates over the last decade. This can be attributed to water pollution, possibly due to heavy metal contamination of River Hadejia that affects organisms living in it, such as fish. This study is aimed to determine the
concentration of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb) in two fish muscles. The research was conducted on tilapia and catfish where two samples of both fishes were used. The fish tissues were cut and oven-dried at 110 °C, and then a motor and pestle were used to powder the dried fish
sample. A wet digestion method was used based on the analytical methods for Atomic
Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The result obtained shows that the concentrations of heavy
metals (Cr, Cd, As and Pb) in both fishes were found to be 0.3220 ± 0.0028; 0.1656 ± 0.002
(𝑚𝑔/𝑘𝑔), 0.0319 ± 0.0018; 0.0333 ± 0.0018 (𝑀𝑔/𝑘𝑔), 0.0697 ± 0.0011; 0.1035 ± 0.0015
(𝑚𝑔/𝑘𝑔) and 1.008 ± 0.0035; 0.600 ± 0.002 (𝑚𝑔/𝑘𝑔) respectively. The mean concentration value of the two samples of both tilapia and catfish were found to be above WHO standard limit except for cadmium in tilapia which is below WHO standard limit.
Borate glass systems have been extensively studied for practical applications in optical display
devices by virtue of their peculiar luminescence efficiency. However, the attainment of high
emission from borate glass materials via apposite control of rare earth ions (REIs) contents
remains a topical issue in Material Physics. In this paper, we report the influence
of REIs (Dy3+, Eu3+, and Sm3+) on multiple-colour emission of magnesium sodium borate
(MSB) glasses fabricated by using the conventional melt-quenching method. These glasses were optically characterized via X-ray Diffraction (XRD), UV-VIS-NIR and
Photoluminescence techniques. The XRD pattern confirms the amorphous nature of the as-prepared glasses. The absorption spectra disclosed several absorption bands at 347 nm (6H15/2 → 6P7/2) for Dy3+, 393 nm (7F0 → 5L6) for Eu3+ and 403 nm (6H5/2 →6P5/2) assigned for Sm3+ respectively. Also, the emission spectra radiate at 463 nm (4F9/2 → 6F11/2 + 6H9/2), 612 nm (5D0 → 7FJ) and 599 nm (4G5/2 → 6H7/2) for Dy3+, Eu3+, and Sm3+ correspondingly, wherein Dy3+ emits blue, yellow, and red light, Eu3+ emits red light and Sm3+ emits reddish-orange light. Finally, 1.0 mol% content of Dy3+, Eu3+, and Sm3+ in MSB glasses was found to be optimal and hence considered the best optical host for colour display devices.
A study of the occurrence of the first intense Geomagnetic storm (G4) to hit the Earth since the
start of the Solar Cycle 25 is carried out. This study analyzed the Geomagnetic Storm that
occurred between the 28th of October and the 7th of November 2021. The values of the
Disturbance storm time (Dst) index of the storm reach -115 nT (G4) which occurred on the 4th
of November at 1300UT. The storm is the first intense magnetic storm that occurred in the solar
cycle 25. It is also a multiple-step storm with moderate two-step storm occurrence which
occurred on the 5th and 6th of November at 1500UT and 0600UT respectively towards the
recovery phase after the intense storm. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF)Bz (nT) during
these storm events decreases. Our analysis shows that the rise in solar wind speed, temperature
and the enhancement of pressure plays a significant role in the occurrence of the first intense
Geomagnetic storm of Solar Cycle 25.
An electrical resistivity investigation was carried to investigate the bedrock geometry of the northern part of Kujama Prisons Farm Kaduna using the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES)
method. The study is aimed at obtaining information on the subsurface layering for future civil engineering works. The area covered was 200,000 sqm having five (5) profiles with six (6)
geophysical investigative points on each profile and separated 100m apart. Ohm-Mega resistivity meter was used for the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Thirty (30) points where established. To interpret the VES data, Res1D iterative software, Surfer 11 and Oasis Montaj software’s were used and it revealed three to five subsurface layers having Topsoil thickness between 0.3 − 2mand resistivity between 104 − 4824 Ωm also, the last layer considered as the weathered/fractured/fresh basement has an infinite thickness with resistivity
ranging from 45 – 10173 Ωm and the average overburden thickness of the area found to be 17.8m. The VES found fresh basement at points A3(6151 Ωm), A6(5089 Ωm), B3(1067Ωm), E5(10173 Ωm) and E6(1100 Ωm). From the study it is suggestive that the bedrock geometry has been irregularly configured over geological times due to effects of intense weathering. Therefore, the investigation revealed the study area may be considered for civil works of low bearing capacity.
Electrical Resistivity Methods involving Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and
Wenner Electrical Profiling (EP) were carried out to map the Geological features of the earth
subsurface in Zainawa Area of Kano State, Nigeria. Five profiles were established; consist of
six (6) VES points at each profile. GEOPULSE resistivity meter (SAS 300) was used for the data acquisition. The field data obtained have been analyzed using computer software (IPI2win) which gives an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity. A maximum of three geoelectric subsurface layers were delineated from the VES master curves. The geoelectric section beneath the study area was composed of top soil (clayey-sandy and sandy-lateritic), weathered layer, partly weathered (fractured basement) and fresh basement. The resistivity value for the topsoil layer varies from 20 Ωm to 600 Ωm with thickness ranging from 0.5 to 7.2 m. The weathered basement has resistivity values ranging from 15 Ωm to 593 Ωm and thickness of between 2.75 to 33.04 m. The fractured basement has resistivity values ranging from 201 Ωm to 835 Ωm and thickness of between 11 to 20.4 m. The fresh basement (bedrock) has resistivity values ranging from 1161 Ωm to 3115 Ωm with infinite depth. The depth to basement map was produced to give a good picture of the basement topography within the study area. The depth to basement ranges from 11 m around VES 01 to 85 m around VES 25 m. The map also reveals linear structures (VES 05, 21, 22 and VES 23) which trends in the NE-SW direction. These structures suggest a basement depression at these points. However, the depth from the topsoil to the bedrock surface varies between 2.5 to 37.75 m.
Magnetic measurements, mineralogical and geochemical studies were carried out on surface soil samples in order to delineate susceptibility distribution and to find possible relationships based on paleomagnetic implications in some part of Kalambaina Area of Sokoto Northwestern Nigeria. Geomorphologically, this area is generally gentle, with occasionally tabular, capped
by resistance laterites. Elevation generally decreases towards the northwest around the Nigeria
- Niger Republic boarder with an average elevation of about 215 above mean sea level. A total of 90 sample were measured at random with DSM-10 susceptibility Kappa metre as well
20 core drilling samples were collected for further XRF geochemical analysis. Mass specific susceptibility value ranges between 11.2 × 10^-6 SI and 1.4 − 8.2 × 10^-6 SI and magnetic remanence at 1 T values range between 10 × 10^-6 SI and 0.5 − 9.0 × 10^-6 SI as well as 0.5 − 7.4 × 10^-6 SI. Chemical analysis by Xray Fluorescence analysis revealed the presence concentration of various elements with their percentage composition (%) and the percentage composition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) content between > 40% and < 70%, > 70% and < 80%, core drilling depth and overburden thickness of a limestone Layer and Overburden. Has also revealed low- and high-grade calcium carbonate CaCO3content.
High-resolution aeromagnetic data over a part of Ageva fault zone in Nigeria have been
analyzed with a view to estimate sedimentary thicknesses within the studied area. The data set
of this study area, was subjected to various corrections and interpretation techniques. Regionalresidual correction was done and the noise level of the data was reduced via upward
continuation to a height of 250 m thereby enhancing the reliability of the results obtained. Qualitative interpretation techniques which include: Second Vertical Derivative, Analytic Signal, Tilt derivative were used to delineate the trending pattern of the anomalies in the study
area which are in the E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE, and N-S directions. The result suggests that fault zone within Ageva and Owo may be mineralized and also that the faults within Ageva and Ibilo
extend by a quarter of their exposed length. The Werner solutions revealed that inferred faults within Owo and Ibilo may have relatively low susceptibilities as compared with others in the
study area and the range of the depth extent of linear features is 401.5 m – 982.5 m.