This paper presents an assessment of background radiation levels within the Niger Delta University campus, Bayelsa State Nigeria. A portable Geiger-Muller tube (Radiation Alert) was used to detect the background ionizing radiation within a temperature range of -100 â„ƒ to 500 â„ƒ. Results of absorbed dose rate in air in the main campus, open field and new campus varies from 104.4 nGy/h to 278.4 nGy/h with an average of 156.6 nGy/h, 34.8 nGy/h to 174.0 nGy/h with an average of 95.7 nGy/h and 69.6 nGy/h to 174.0 nGy/h with an average of 113.1 nGy/h respectively. The annual effective dose estimates ranged from 0.160 mSv/y to 0.427 mSv/y with an average of 0.024 mSv/y, 0.053 to 0.267 mSv/y with an average of 0.147 mSv/y and 0.107 to 0.267 mSv/y with mean 0.173 mSv/y in the main campus, open field and new campus respectively. The excess lifetime cancer risks ranged from 0.442 to 01.174 x 10-3 with a mean of 0.663 x 10-3, 0.146 to 0.736 x 10-3 with an average of 0.405 x 10-3 and 0.295 to 0.736 x 10-3 with average 0.479 x 10-3 in main campus, open field and new campus respectively. The estimated averages of absorbed dose rates in the air within Niger Delta University were above the world average of 57 nGy/h. Annual Effective Dose Equivalent (AEDE) are below the safe limit of 1 mSv/y for humans. The results of this study provide baseline information on the background ionizing radiation and can be referenced for future works in the area.
This study used aeromagnetic data of Jemaâ€™a, sheet No.188 to estimate the geothermal energy resource potential in Jemaâ€™a Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study area lies between latitude 9Â°11' and 9Â°27' N and longitude 8Â°00' and 8Â°17' E. Total magnetic intensity (TMI) map of the area was produced from the gridded data. Residual map was obtained by removing regional field from the TMI which was divided into 36 blocks for spectral analysis. The centroid depth (Z0) was obtained by dividing the gradient of the lengthiest wavelength part of the spectrum by the wave number. The depth to top (Zt) of the magnetic source was obtained from the gradient of high wave number portion of the power spectrum. The values of Z0 and Zt were used to obtain the values for depth to bottom of the magnetic source (ZB). The geothermal gradient (dT/dZ) values were obtained by dividing 580â„ƒ by ZB while the heat flow (q) values were obtained by multiplying dT/dZ by the constant k (2.51).The dT/dZ values obtained range from 13.560 to 4000.000â„ƒ/km with an average value of 46.393â„ƒ/k and having the least (13.560 â„ƒ/km) around Kafanchan axis and the highest (4000.000 â„ƒ/km) around Sanga. The q values range from 34.036 to 1004.00 mW m^(-2) with an average value of 118.089 mW m^(-2). The dT/dZ values were observed to be greater than 100 mW m^(-2) around Sanga and Andaha axes. The Curie depth (28 km) was deepest at the South-South, South-East and South-West regions. Since magnetic properties of minerals disappear at this temperature and thermal conductivity of rocks increases with depth, these areas are potential geothermal energy source.
In this paper, the effect of substituting europium (Eu3+) ion on physical and photoluminescence
properties of zinc phosphor-sulfo-tellurite glasses is reported for the first time. The glass
matrices with novel compositional range of 10ZnOâ€“40TeO2â€“10SO3â€“(40-x)P2O5â€“ xEu2O3 were
synthesized by convectional melt-quenching route and characterized via density and
photoluminescence (PL) measurements. The non-linearity properties of these glasses was
ascertained and dependence of red emission performance under Î»ex= 394 nm excitation
wavelengths disclosed bright red emission at Î»em. = 612nm. The concentration quenching
phenomenon was observed after a particular value of europium ions (beyond 2 mol %). Thus,
2 mol% of Eu3+ in the glass composition was identified as the optimized concentration for the
design and development of solid state red laser and color display devices.
A psychrometric energy process desalination unit has been experimentally tested. The system is based on humidification and dehumidification process where seawater is heated and then sprayed to humidify the incoming air in the humidification chamber. The humidified air
enters the dehumidification chamber and is cooled by the incoming cold seawater. The
moisture is condensed out and the pure water is accumulated at the base of the chamber, and
the dehumidified air is discharged to the outside. The seawater was heated to temperature between 60 - 90Â°C using a 2.4kW electric heater. Performance data on temperature, seawater mass flow rate, air flow rate and the amount of fresh water produced were obtained, and the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) of the system was calculated based on the data obtained. The result achieved indicates the system had a maximum fresh water production of 13kg/h with a maximum COP of 3.6. The initial test shows that the system has great potential with room for improvements and further optimisation.
In this paper, a proposal for the development of a neighbourhood network (n-network) automatic power sharing system that will bring about regulatory paradigm and mobilization of the private sector to lead in deployment of clean energy solutions while letting local residents to buy (consumer) and sell (producer) electricity among the neighbours is presented. Here the neighbourhoods become prosumers. Until now, electricity production and supply has
traditionally been implemented via a centralized grid where the power generation companies
otherwise known as Gencos generate electricity that is fed through the grid to individual homes. The proposed solution aims to create a peer-to-peer trading system where consumers will identify each otherâ€™s needs and willingness to buy and sell electricity. This offers the chance to bypass the traditional electricity grid and create a viable generation and storage micro grid that functions independently.