Physics Access

A Journal of Physics and Emerging Technologies

A Publication of the Department of Physics, Kaduna State University, Nigeria.
ISSN Online: 2756-3898
ISSN Print: 2714-500X

Preliminary Investigation of Soil and Sediments Using Magnetic Susceptibility Method in Kogi State,

Jatto S Solomon, Nwodo M Ogechukwu and Kizito O Musa
2022-06-07 428 views 3 downloads


Over the years, there has been significant increase in population and urbanization in Kogi State as a result of rural - urban migration. This has become a major threat to soil sustainability which is a natural non-renewable resource. The aim of this research is to carry out magnetic susceptibility mapping on the surface and subsurface soil of Kogi State using environmental magnetism techniques and geochemical analysis. The susceptibility test on rock samples and background soil samples within the study area shows an average of about 112.0 × 10^-5 SI. The magnetic susceptibility measurement on soil from Kogi State shows magnetic susceptibility enhancement of about (450.0 - 700.0) × 10^-5 SI. These values were dominant along the major towns, road pavements and commercial areas at the surface to a depth of about 50.0 cm in soil profiles. The 2D spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility with depth reveals that theses magnetic grains are distributed in the subsurface as a result of anthropogenic loading. The frequency-dependence of magnetic susceptibility (χfd%) values are very low (2 - 10.0 %) in most of the areas on the surface soil. This values indicate that the magnetic properties are predominantly contributed by the coarse multi - domain (MD) and stable single domain (SSD) grains of anthropogenic origin. Atomic Absorbtion Spectrometer (AAS) analysis of these soil samples indicates the presence of Lead (300.0 - 900.0) mg/l and Cadmium (20.0 - 60.0) mg/l in large concentration at the surface soil in most part of the Kogi State. While Chromium show relatively low concentration on the surface soil. From the statistical correlation analysis, Lead and Cadmium show high positive correlation with magnetic susceptibility. These results suggests that the high enhancement of magnetic susceptibility on the surface and sub-surface soil in most part of Kogi State arise from anthropogenic activities rather than lithological and pedogenic processes and most likely cause by high concentration of Lead and Cadmium.


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